Markov chainsequence of finite random transitions for a photon to go from one state in the atmosphere to another. Each future state has an associated probability of happening. All future states are independent of any previous states, except the most recent one.

Optical depthmeasure of how much electromagnetic radiation passes through a medium; a measure of the medium’s opacity/absorbing ability.


Radiative transfer transfer of energy through electromagnetic radiation, passing through a medium, which is affected by emission, absorption and/or scattering from atmospheric constituents.


Surface albedo the fraction of solar energy reflected to incident energy of a surface, reflected back to space.